Uganda has over the years recorded steady decline in infant and under-five mortality while no real progress is observed in reducing neonatal and maternal deaths. The immediate causes of under-five mortality are pneumonia (16 per cent), malaria (13 per cent), diarrhea (10 per cent) and HIV and AIDs (7 per cent).
Child mortality is not evenly distributed across the country. The highest mortality is in Karamoja, Southwest, West Nile and western regions. Rural areas are significantly higher than in urban areas, although even in urban areas rates are comparatively high. There are also substantial regional differences in under-five mortality, with significantly higher rates having been reported from the North (West Nile and North) and the South West.